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Balyakalasakhi Malayalam Novel Review Essay

The childhood romance between neighbours blossoms into passionate love during adolescence. Majeed's father was rich once, so could send him to a school in the distant town, although he was not very good at studies. Suhra's father on the other hand had trouble making both ends meet. Even then he wanted to send his daughter, who was good at studies to the school. But after hThe childhood romance between neighbours blossoms into passionate love during adolescence. Majeed's father was rich once, so could send him to a school in the distant town, although he was not very good at studies. Suhra's father on the other hand had trouble making both ends meet. Even then he wanted to send his daughter, who was good at studies to the school. But after her father's death, all her hopes of further studies was ruined. Majeed begs his father to sponsor Suhra's education, but he refuses. Majeed leaves home after a skirmish with his father, and wanders over distant lands for a long time before returning home. On his return, he finds that his family's former affluence is all gone, and that his beloved Suhra has married someone else. He is grief struck at the loss of love, and this is when Suhra turns up at his home. She is a shadow of her former self. The beautiful, sunshiny, vibrant Suhra of old is now a woman worn out by life, battered hard by a loveless marriage to an abusive husband. Majeed commands her, "Suhra, don't go back!" and she stays....more

Published by DC Books (first published May 1944)

1. Vaikom Muhammad Basheer – Vaikom Muhammad Basheer was a Malayalam fiction writer from the state of Kerala in India. He was a humanist, freedom fighter, novelist and short story writer and he is noted for his path-breaking, disarmingly down-to-earth style of writing that made him equally popular among literary critics as well as the common man. He is regarded as one of the most successful and outstanding writers from India, translations of his works into other languages have won him worldwide acclaim. His notable works include Balyakalasakhi, Shabdangal, Pathummayude Aadu, Mathilukal, Ntuppuppakkoranendarnnu, Janmadinam and he was awarded the Padma Shri in 1982. He is fondly remembered as the Beypore Sultan, Basheer, born in Thalayolaparambu Kottayam District, was the eldest child of his parents. His father was in the timber business, after beginning his education at the local Malayalam medium school, he was sent to the English medium school in Vaikom, five miles away. While at school he fell under the spell of Mahatma Gandhi and he started wearing Khaddar, inspired by the swadesi ideals. When Gandhi came to Vaikom to participate in the Vaikom Satyagraham Basheer went to see him and he managed to climb on to the car in which Gandhi travelled and touch his hand, a fond memory Basheer later mentioned in many of his writings. He used to visit Gandhis Satyagraha Ashram at Vaikom every day and he resolved to join the fight for an independent India, leaving school to do so while he was in the fifth form. Basheer was known for his perfectly secular attitude, and he treated all religions with respect, since there was no active independence movement in Travancore or Kochi – being princely states – he went to Malabar to take part in the Salt Satyagraha in 1930. His group was arrested before they could participate in the satyagraha, Basheer was sentenced to three months imprisonment and sent to Kannur prison. He became inspired by stories of heroism by revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru and he and about 600 political prisoners then at Kannur were released after the Gandhi-Irwin pact of March 1931. Freed from prison, he organised a movement and edited a revolutionary journal. A warrant was issued for his arrest and he left Kerala, there were times when, with no water to drink, without any food to eat, he came face to face with death. After doing menial jobs in such as Ajmer, Peshawar, Kashmir and Calcutta. While trying his hands at various jobs, like washing vessels in hotels, and Basheer returned home to find his fathers business bankrupt and the family impoverished. He started working as an agent for the Sialkot sports company at Ernakulam, but he lost the agency when a bicycle accident incapacitated him temporarily. On recovering, he resumed his endless hunt for jobs and he walked into the office of a newspaper Jayakesari whose editor was also its sole employee

2. Romance novel – The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. Novels of this type of genre fiction place their primary focus on the relationship, there are many subgenres of the romance novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, and science fiction. Walter Scott defined the literary form of romance as a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. Austen inspired Georgette Heyer, the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, Heyers first romance novel, The Black Moth, was set in 1751. The British company Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s and their books were sold in North America by Harlequin Enterprises Ltd, which began direct marketing to readers and allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. An early American example of a romance was Kathleen Woodiwiss The Flame. Nancy Coffey was the editor who negotiated a multi-book deal with Woodiwiss. In North America, romance novels are the most popular literary genre, the genre is also popular in Europe and Australia, and romance novels appear in 90 languages. Most of the books, however, are written by authors from English-speaking countries, despite the popularity and widespread sales of romance novels, the genre has attracted significant derision, skepticism, and criticism. Romance erotica seems to be on the rise as more women explore this new subgenre, erotica is a term used to describe scenes in the novel that are risqué but not pornographic. According to the Romance Writers of America, the plot of a romance novel must revolve about the two people as they develop romantic love for each other and work to build a relationship. Furthermore, a novel must have an emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. Others, including Leslie Gelbman, a president of Berkley Books, define the genre more simply, stating only that a romance must make the romantic relationship between the hero and the heroine. Bestselling author Nora Roberts sums up the genre, saying, The books are about the celebration of falling in love and emotion and commitment, some romance novel authors and readers believe the genre has additional restrictions, from plot considerations, to avoiding themes. While the majority of romance novels meet the criteria, there are also many books widely considered to be romance novels that deviate from these rules. Therefore, the definition, as embraced by the RWA and publishers, includes only the focus on a developing romantic relationship. As long as a romance novel meets those criteria, it can be set in any time period. There are no restrictions on what can or cannot be included in a romance novel

3. Malayalam – Malayalam /mʌləˈjɑːləm/ is a language spoken in India, predominantly in the state of Kerala. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and was designated as a Classical Language in India in 2013 and it was developed to the current form mainly by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century. Malayalam has official status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by some 38 million people, according to one theory, Malayalam originated from Middle Tamil in the 7th century. However, the current understanding proposes the separation of Malayalam from Proto-Dravidian in the pre-historic era, Malayalam incorporated many elements from Sanskrit through the ages. Before Malayalam came into being, Old Tamil was used in literature and courts of a region called Tamilakam, including present day Kerala state, silappatikaramit was written by Chera prince Ilango Adigal from Chunkaparra, and is considered a classic in Sangam literature. Modern Malayalam still preserves many words from the ancient Tamil vocabulary of Sangam literature, the earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, and later the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it. As Malayalam began to borrow words as well as the rules of grammar from Sanskrit. This developed into the modern Malayalam script, many medieval liturgical texts were written in an admixture of Sanskrit and early Malayalam, called Manipravalam. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries, the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. Due to its lineage deriving from both Tamil and Sanskrit, the Malayalam script has the largest number of letters among the Indian language orthographies, the Malayalam script includes letters capable of representing almost all the sounds of all Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages. Malayalam serves as a language on the islands including the Mahl-dominated Minicoy Island. The word Malayalam originated from the Sanskrit resp, Malayalam words malai or mala, meaning hill, and elam, meaning region. Malayalam thus translates as hill region and used to refer to the land of the Chera dynasty, the language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, and Mallealle. The word Malayalam originally meant only for the name of the region, Malayanma or Malayayma represented the language. With the emergence of modern Malayalam language, the name of the language started to be known by the name of the region, hence now, the word Malayanma is considered by some to represent the olden Malayalam language. The language got the name Malayalam during the mid 19th century, the origin of Malayalam, an independent offshoot of the proto-Dravidian language, has been and continues to be an engaging pursuit among comparative historical linguists. Together with Tamil, Toda, Kannada and Tulu, Malayalam belongs to the group of Dravidian languages

4. Tragedy – Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. In the wake of Aristotles Poetics, tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, in the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against drama, melodrama, the tragicomic, and epic theatre. Drama, in the sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects against models of tragedy, taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation. The word tragedy appears to have used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greek τραγῳδία, contracted from trag-aoidiā = goat song, scholars suspect this may be traced to a time when a goat was either the prize in a competition of choral dancing or was that around which a chorus danced prior to the animals ritual sacrifice. In another view on the etymology, Athenaeus of Naucratis says that the form of the word was trygodia from trygos and ode. There is some dissent to the origins of tragedy, mostly based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested, friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy. Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the genre developed. Scott Scullion writes, There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as song for the prize goat, and as prize was established the billy goat, the clearest is Eustathius 1769.45, They called those competing tragedians, clearly because of the song over the billy goat. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, Athenian tragedies were performed in late March/early April at an annual state religious festival in honor of Dionysus. The presentations took the form of a contest between three playwrights, who presented their works on three successive days, each playwright offered a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a concluding comic piece called a satyr play. The four plays sometimes featured linked stories, only one complete trilogy of tragedies has survived, the Oresteia of Aeschylus. The Greek theatre was in the air, on the side of a hill. Performances were apparently open to all citizens, including women, the theatre of Dionysus at Athens probably held around 12,000 people

5. Novel – A novel is any relatively long piece of written narrative fiction, normally in prose, and typically published as a book. The genre has also described as possessing, a continuous. This view sees the novels origins in Classical Greece and Rome, medieval, early modern romance, the latter, an Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long prose narrative, Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel, a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, a novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word romance for extended narratives, fictionality is most commonly cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion, historians would also invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the hand, depict the social, political and personal realities of a place and period with clarity. Even in the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byrons Don Juan, Alexander Pushkins Yevgeniy Onegin, vikram Seths The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel. Both in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations, on the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, conduct and gallantry spread with novels, the novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella, short story, and flash fiction. However, in the 17th century critics saw the romance as of epic length, the length of a novel can still be important because most literary awards use length as a criterion in the ranking system. Urbanization and the spread of printed books in Song Dynasty China led to the evolution of oral storytelling into consciously fictional novels by the Ming dynasty, parallel European developments did not occur for centuries, and awaited the time when the availability of paper allowed for similar opportunities. By contrast, Ibn Tufails Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and Ibn al-Nafis Theologus Autodidactus are works of didactic philosophy, in this sense, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan would be considered an early example of a philosophical novel, while Theologus Autodidactus would be considered an early theological novel. Epic poetry exhibits some similarities with the novel, and the Western tradition of the novel back into the field of verse epics. Then at the beginning of the 18th century, French prose translations brought Homers works to a wider public, longus is the author of the famous Greek novel, Daphnis and Chloe. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of narrative in prose or verse popular in the circles of High Medieval. In later romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a tendency to emphasize themes of courtly love

6. Kolkata – Kolkata /koʊlˈkɑːtɑː/ is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Areas economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai, in the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was enough to abolish Nizamat. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement, it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics, following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football, there are several explanations about the etymology of this name, The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning Field of Kali. Similarly, it can be a variation of Kalikshetra, alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or flat area. The name may have its origin in the words khal meaning canal, followed by kaṭa, according to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata, hence, it was called Kolikata. The discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh,35 kilometres north of Kolkata, Kolkatas recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, which was consolidating its trade business in Bengal. The area occupied by the city encompassed three villages, Kalikata, Gobindapur, and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a village, Sutanuti was a riverside weavers village. They were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor and these rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the construction of Fort William, facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and his warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked, he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta. A force of Company soldiers and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year, declared a presidency city, Calcutta became the headquarters of the East India Company by 1772. In 1793, ruling power of the Nawabs were abolished and East India company took control of the city

7. Prem Nazir – Abdul Khader, better known by his stage name Prem Nazir, was an Indian film actor best known for his work in Malayalam cinema. He is considered as one of the all time super stars in Malayalam cinema, Nazir was a popular lead actor from the 1950s till the early 1980s. He is referred to as the Nithya Haritha Nayakan of Malayalam cinema, Nazir holds two Guinness World Records, for playing the lead role in a record 725 films, and for playing opposite the same heroine in 130 films. He also holds two other acting records, for acting opposite eighty heroines and for acting in roles in thirty nine films which were released in a single year. Nazir also tried his hand in politics but was unsuccessful, the Government of India has honoured him with the Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri, the third and fourth highest civilian honours respectively, for his contribution towards the arts. He died due to measles on 16 January 1989 at the age of 59, Nazir was born in Chirayinkeezhu in the princely state of Travancore, to Akkode Shahul Hamid and Asuma Beevi on April 7,1926. He has two brothers Prem Nawas, Ashraf and six sisters, Sulekha, Aleefa, Aneesa, Umaiba, Sunaisa and his mother died when he was very young. He completed his education from Kadinamkulam Lower Primary School, Sri Chithiravilasam School, SD College, Alappuzha. By the time he completed his education, he had become a drama artist. It was on the sets of his movie, Visappinte Vili. Prem Nazir had his debut as Shylock in the play The Merchant of Venice. He won the best actor award for this role in the directed by Sheppard. His first film was Marumakal, directed by S. K. Chari and he was credited Abdul Khader itself in this film. He got his break with Visappinte Vili, his second film. Prem Nazir started his career when drama was the most popular visual medium and he started acting for the Excel Productions and most of his films were for the Udaya and Merryland Studios. With the arrival of Nazir, there was a new screen personality, Prem Nazir acquired the halo of a romantic hero and a loyal following. His tear-jerkers were very popular with audiences and soon made him a darling of the masses. He soon became the first real star of Malayalam cinema, another factor that helped Prem Nazirs instant rise – as it had the rise of his contemporaries in other regional film industries – was the continuing reign of mythologicals and devotionals

8. J. Sasikumar – Nambiathusseril Varkey John, better known by his screen name Sasikumar, was an Indian film director who worked in Malayalam cinema. One of the most prolific directors in cinema, he directed more than 141 movies in his film career which began in the mid-1960s. He is often referred to as Hitmaker Sasikumar mainly due to the success of his films. Sasikumar holds three records, the records for most number of films, most number of films having the same actor as hero. He died in 2014 at the age of 87 and he was born on 14 October 1927 to N L Varkey and Mariya in Allappuzha, Kerala. His original name was N. V. John and he had displayed a flair for acting in dramas even when he was a boy of 10. He completed his education from Leo Thirteenth High school, Alleppey and St. Ephrems School. During his college life he had represented Kerala University football team and he passed out as a graduate in Economics from Sacred Hearts College, Thevara. During his studies in the schools and colleges, he had proved his flair for acting in dramas especially of the Shakespearean genre. Later on, Kunchacko of Udaya Studios, Alleppey, identified his talent and gave him a role to act in his film Visappinte Vili in which he acted as villain against the Evergreen Hero, Prem Nazir. This happened to be the first film in Malayalam in which a villain fights with the hero without a dupe, subsequently, in addition to acting in several films produced by Udaya Studios he worked as the Assistant director of Kunchacko in those films. It was Kunchacko who identified that Sasikumar had in his repertoire the necessary talent, later on, he joined Merryland Studios, owned by the veteran director-producer P. Subramaniam. It was under his tutelage that Sasikumar was transformed into a great director, while in Merryland he worked with many renowned actors of that time, including T. K. Balachandran, Prem Nazir and Thikkurissi Sukumaran Nair. He worked as director to P. Subramaniam in addition to acting in some roles himself. Sasikumar still considers P. Subramanyam as an icon who had showered upon him fatherly affection. Following the advice of his friend Prem Nazir, Sasikumar went to Chennai in the 1960s and he directed Thommante Makkal and Porter Kunjali for Thomas Pictures in 1965. He also directed, along with P. A. Thomas, the movie Kudumbini for Thomas Pictures, subsequently, he directed an art film, Kavalam Chundan, which was a flop. As a result, a dejected Sasikumar decided to give up film direction and it was Prem Nazir who encouraged him to return to Chennai where he directed the commercial film Jeevitha Yaathra which became a major hit

9. Balyakalasakhi (2014 film) – Balyakalasakhi is a 2014 Malayalam language film adaptation of the famous novel of the same name by Vaikom Muhammad Basheer. The romantic musical film was written and directed by debutante Pramod Payyannur and stars Mammootty, Isha Talwar, Meena, Seema Biswas, KPAC Lalitha. The film was a flop at the box office The story revolves around childhood sweethearts Majeed, born to rich parents, Majeed falls in love with his not-so-affluent neighbour Suhra. After her fathers death, when Suhra struggles to make ends meet, Majeed pleads with his father to sponsor her education. Refused, he wanders off to distant lands, some of the other characters created by Basheer such as Ettukali Mammoonju and Ottakannan Pokker also appear in the film. The launch of the edition of the novel Balyakalasakhi was done by Leela Menon who handed over the book to Fabi Basheer. Mammootty was chosen to play the lead in film by Pramod Payyannur and he said in an interview with Malayala Manorama, Vaikom is the home of the writer Basheer, the character Majeed and also the actor Mammootty. Only a person who knew that place closely could imbibe that character in both looks and expressions, besides, Basheer is believed to have written Balyakalasakhi during his brief stay at a house in Lower Chitpur Road in Kolkata, he explains. Two seasons were shot in Kerala and Kolkata, West Bengal, the team began shooting in August,2013 at Perumbalam near Vaikom. Mammootty began filming for Balyakalasakhi at Kolkata in October,2013, the 18-day schedule included various places such as Victoria Memorial, Chhote Lal Ghat, in front of Town Hall. The film has received reviews from critics, although was not a great success commercially. Metromatinee. com said even if it has limits, it is a timeless and exciting classic, Mammootty as lovelorn Majeed is impressive. Deccan Chronicle said that Mammootty exceled in double role as Majeed, the film has lyrics and music composed by several leading masters in the field while the background score was composed by Bijibal. The first line of the song Thaamara Poonkaavanathil Thaamasikkunnoley has been mentioned in the novel by Basheer himself, an oral traditional song of the Muslims in Kerala, the song’s lines were supplemented with lyrics penned by K. T. Muhammed. It has been sung by legendary singer K. J. Yesudas, kaalam Parakkanu, the second song composed by Raghavan Master, which has Pramod’s lyrics, has been sung by Raghavan Masters disciple V. T. Murali. P. Bhaskarans poem Ente Thoolika has been adapted for a song composed on the lines of Rabindra Sangeet and it is the title song and has a mix of Urdu lyrics and Baul music too. It has been sung by Shahabaz Aman, the entire song signifies a journey. The Urdu portion has been sung by Ustad Faiyaz Khan, kavalam Narayana Panikkar has composed a song in the folk music tradition that makes use of Basheers idioms and words

10. Mammootty – Mammootty is an Indian film actor and producer best known for his work in Malayalam cinema. In a career spanning three decades, he has acted in over 350 films. Mammootty was a lawyer by profession, after establishing himself as a lead actor in the 1980s, he got his major breakthrough with the commercial success of the 1987 film New Delhi. He has won 3 National Film Awards for Best Actor,7 Kerala State Film Awards, in 1998, he was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India for his contributions towards the arts. He has also received honorary degrees from the University of Kerala in January 2010. Mammootty is the chairman of Malayalam Communications, which runs the Malayalam television channels Kairali TV, People TV and he is also the goodwill ambassador of the Akshaya project, the first district-wide e-literacy project in India. He is the patron of the Pain and Palliative Care Society and he has also been working with the Pain and Palliative Care Centre situated in Kozhikode, India. His father, Ismail, was a farmer and his mother, Fatima and he has two younger brothers, Ibrahimkutty and Zakariah and three younger sisters, Ameena, Sauda, and Shafina. Mammootty had his education from Govt. Later Mammoottys father shifted his family to Ernakulam in the 1960s and his school life was at St. Alberts School and Government School Ernakulam. He did his pre-university course at Sacred Heart College, Thevara and he attended Maharajas College, Ernakulam for his degree. He graduated with a LL. B. from Government Law College, Mammootty practiced law for two years in Manjeri. Mammootty married Sulfath on 1979 and has a daughter, Surumi, Mammoottys younger brother Ibrahimkutty is an actor in Malayalam films and Malayalam TV serials. Ibrahimkuttys son Maqbool Salmaan is also a film actor, Mammoottys debut was in the 1971 film Anubhavangal Paalichakal directed by K. S. Sethumadhavan. His second film was Kaalachakram, a 1973 Malayalam film directed by K. Narayanan, in 1979, he played his first lead role in Devalokam, directed by M. T. Vasudevan Nair. However, this film was never completed and his first release was the 1980 film, Vilkkanundu Swapnangal, directed by Azad, written by M. T. Vasudevan Nair. Mammoottys first starring role in a film was the 1980 film Mela, written and directed by K. G. George Mammootty films of the 1980s include Sphodanam, Munnettam. In 1981, he got his first state award in the Best Supporting Actor category for his performance in Ahimsa and his performances included Aalkkoottathil Thaniye and Adiyozhukkukal

11. Premalekhanam – Premalekhanam is Vaikom Muhammad Basheers first work to be published as a book. The novel is a story of love. Through the hilarious dialogs, Basheer attacks religious Conservatism and the dowry system, a young bank employee, Keshavan Nair, Hindu by religion, Nair by caste lodges on the upper floor of the house belonging to Sarammas father. Saraamma is a Christian by religion, beautiful, young, unmarried, unemployed, Keshavan Nair is an honest simpleton haplessly in love with her. The book gets its title from the letter that Keshavan Nair composes to reveal to Saramma his love for her, the story is a sarcastic commentary on the dowry system and is in favour of inter-religious marriage. But this is disguised in a love story. Basheer was not a Nair or a Christian, he was a lover of humanity, Saramma is an educated woman, and she is trying to get a job, and she has applied for jobs in many countries. The job provider was Keshavan Nair, and the job assigned to Saramma was to love him. He pays for that too in a monthly basis. They belong to different religions, then which religion will their children follow and they decides to teach their children every religion and it is up to the children to choose their religion. They plan to grow their children Religion less, then comes the other serious issue, How will they name the child. They cannot choose a Hindu name or Christian name, Keshavan Nair asks Shall we go for Russian names. Saramma asks How will it be, anything ending with Viskyis a Russian name Saramma was not happy with it. Keshavan Nair asks Shall we go for Chinese names like Kwang Saramma is still not happy, finally they decides to go with names over objects like sky, sand, Air, toffee, balloon. They finally decide to take a lot of objects, The result of the lot will be two chits which say Sky and Toffee. They name their child as Skytoffee, Saramma interrupts Do you want our child to become a communist Keshavan Nair says Let him decide on that. As for me, I am living each moment of my life with my mind stirring hopelessly in love with my Saaraama, I request you to think deeply and kindly bless me with a sweetly generous reply, Saaraamas own, Keshavan Nair. Basheer mentions the writing of Premalekhanam in his later work Mathilukal, the love-story that forms the plot of Mathilukal happened during the same prison term. At jail, he wrote many stories to entertain fellow prisoners, but at the time of leaving prison, the only work that he could get hold of was Premalekhanam. After his release, he got Premalekhanam published in 1943, by 1944, the book was banned in Thiruvithankoor, although there was nothing political in it

12. Mathilukal – Mathilukal is a Malayalam novel written by Vaikom Muhammad Basheer in 1965. It is one of the most cherished and well-known love stories in Malayalam and its hero, Basheer himself, and heroine, Narayani, never meet, yet they love each other passionately. Despite being imprisoned and separated by a wall that divides their prisons. The theme of the novel, focusses on the love between Basheer, a prisoner, and an inmate of the prison, who remains unseen throughout the novel. In Mathilukal, though the frame is autobiographical and the narration is first person. As Basheer, who is jailed for writing against the then ruling British, Basheer befriends his fellow-inmates and a considerate young jailor. One day, Basheer hears a voice from the other side of the wall – the womens prison. Eventually the two jailbirds become lovebirds and they exchange gifts, and their hearts, without meeting each other. Narayani then comes up with a plan for a meeting, they decide to meet at the hospital a few days later, but before that, Basheer is released, unexpectedly. For once, he not want the freedom he had craved for. The novel ends with Basheer standing outside the prison with a rose in his hand, in 1989, a film adaptation of the novel was released, starring Mammootty as Vaikom Muhammad Basheer, and directed by Adoor Gopalakrishnan. The film was a critical success, and gained many awards at national and international levels. Mammootty won the National Film Award for Best Actor, book review by Susan Mathen of Ingoodbooks. com

13. Bhoomiyude Avakashikal

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