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The Orphan Boy And The Elk Dog Critical Thinking Answers

The Orphan Boy and the Elk Dog

Blackfoot

A long time ago there were not horses and dogs carried everything. A brother and a sister lived among a tribe. They were orphans. The brother was deaf and everyone thought he was stupid. No one wanted him. The sister was the only one who cared for someone, but someone soon adopted her from another village. The brother was left to fend for himself. He stole what leftover food and clothing that he could and slept in a grass dugout away from everyone else. One day all the food was gone and the village moved somewhere else, they told him that he had to stay, but after several days, he ran out of food, so he decided that he must go and be with his people.

He started running after them. He felt a pop and a worm-like thing came out of his left ear. As he was running, there was another pop and a worm-like thing came out of his right ear. He could hear. When he caught up with his village he met an old man named Good Running. Good Running saw him and offered him some food. He said that he knew people thought he was stupid, but he didn’t think he was stupid. Good Running soon adopted the boy whose original name had been Long Arrow. Good Running’s wife was not happy about having to take care of the boy, but the boy turned out to be good. He learned fast and soon surpassed all the other boys his age. He grew into a fine hunter.

As he was grown up he asked Good Running if there was anything he could do for him. Good Running told him about a place where he could get a strange animal. It was by a lake. No one had been able to do it yet. He told Long Arrow that he would have to travel for four days to a lake and talk to the being that lived in the lake.

Long Arrow left with his best dog in search of this strange animal. He came to a lake four days later. At the lake he met a man and told him he was looking for an elk dog. The man said he could not help him, but if Long Arrow traveled four times four days he would meet one of the man’s uncles who might talk to Long Arrow.

Long Arrow traveled on and soon came to the next lake and met the next man. The next man could not help him either, but if he traveled four times four days, his grandfather might help Long Arrow.

Long Arrow traveled on to the biggest lake he had ever seen, it was the great mystery lake. There he met a boy. The boy said his grandfather was below the lake and he might be able to help Long Arrow. The boy turned into a king fisher and dove into the water. Long Arrow was not very sure about going into the deep water, but figured that this was what he had come to do so he might as well do it. The waters parted for him and he was able to walk through the water down, down, and down until he reached the center where there was a tipi.

Inside the tipi was an old man who wore a great black robe and had a long white beard. The old man fed Long Arrow quite well in his well-appointed tipi. He told Long Arrow that not many were brave enough to come this far. He said to go to a meadow with his grandson to see the elk dogs. Long Arrow went with the boy and the elk dogs were nothing like he had ever seen. The boy showed Long Arrow how to ride the elk dogs. He also offered Long Arrow some advice. He told Long Arrow that if he could get a good look at his grandfather’s feet, he could ask for three things–the old man’s black medicine robe, his medicine belt, and a herd of elk dogs.

Long Arrow tried and tried to see the old man’s feet, but kept failing. Finally, on the fourth day, a bit of the robe got caught at the opening of the tipi and Long Arrow was able to see the old man’s feet. They were not regular feet and legs, but were feet and legs of the elk dog. The old man asked Long Arrow what he wanted and Long Arrow told him. The old man said he would give Long Arrow these things and would also give him a rope made from white buffalo.

The old man told him that the medicine belt would teach Long Arrow the songs and prayers of the elk dogs and he must learn them. The elk dogs would not follow him right away. He must walk for four days without turning back. The elk dogs would come up to his left on the fourth day. At that time Long Arrow would be able to use the black robe and the rope to catch elk dogs. He caught one to ride and one to carry his things.

When he arrived back at his village, people were afraid of the elk dogs, but Long Arrow was there and taught the people about them. They would be able to ride them and carry heavier things. Long Arrow was revered in the community. Some time later, Long Arrow was asked to take the people back to the great mystery lake. He did, but he could no longer walk through the waters and there seemed to be nothing underneath the lake at all except for a few fish.

Observations

Horses were not always in the Americas, according to history books. They were brought over by the Spaniards and some got free and began to multiply. The natives also traded for them and trained them. These days there are large groups of wild mustangs in various places in the United States, although some of those numbers are dwindling and some are even caught and killed, for what reasoning, I’m not sure. Not too far away from where I’m at, there are wild horses on the coast, in the Corolla and Roanoke areas of North Carolina. Okracoke island even has its own little sub-set of the wild horses. They’re currently cared for the government.

A horse must have been a great revelation when you only had dogs before.

Themes

This is an origin story, which probably isn’t true– I hate to break your bubble, horses probably didn’t come from a magical man living in the bottom of a lake, but it’s still a cool story.

I don’t have a lot of personal experience with horses, but I do know that a person needs to be gentle with them and have a certain manner with them if they expect those horses to train well and have a good relationship with them. Horses are highly intelligent. You can train a horse by whipping it, but is it going to have that relationship with you that you want? Nope. That horse is going to hate your guts. Horses can kill.

Long Arrow learned how to be gentle with horses. I hate to say it, but he learned how to whisper them. He was told to learn the songs and prayers of the elk dogs, which is basically saying that he was told that he had to learn to treat horses with respect. He was essentially taught to approach the horses in the right manner with the proper communication. The natives learned to keep horses and take care of them in a fitting way. The horses became an important part of their community because they recognized their intelligence and treated them with respect.

Overall

Don’t eat horse meat people, horses are just too smart.

Weigh In

Do you think you could train a horse?

Do you think the others didn’t make it because they couldn’t grasp how to treat a horse?

Tags
good running, horse origin story, horses, long arrow, mustang ponies, Native American tales, native americans and horses, The Orphan Boy and the Elk Dog

Arc the Lad: Twilight of the Spirits

A t L Twi t Sp r h a : lig of h iri c e d ht e ts a guide to the game from Otaku Gundam and Tora Sora *Version 1.80* Welcome, one and all. This is a FAQ. I'm sure you all know what one is, so onward. Arc the Lad: Twilight of the Spirits (c) 2003 SCEA: Sony Corporation Entertainment of America [and all them rich folk]. This FAQ (c) 2003 Sora Coulter and "Domo" Takeshi [us poor folk]. This FAQ is liable to change opinions (meaning something might say ((Sora: *glares at power-trippin' Deimos*)) or <>Otaku: *glares at greedy Humans*<>) so beware of that. Just so you know who's talking when. ^_^ Also, please bear in mind that we're re-taking down information as we play through again. We sure as heck don't remember details from the beginning, so we're going through like we're playin' it for the very first time. So it'll be updated as our joint game-thingy progresses... Please be patient. Thanks. ^_^ To contact us: (since we know nobody really reads the Credits...) Email us (BOTH, heheh) at twilight_homies@yahoo.com. We know, aren't we cool. <>Otaku: I've noticed that some people have e-mailed my own e-mail address with Arc: ToS questions. While I personally don't mind it, I do prefer to consult with Sora on the questions (since she knows some parts of it better than I). If you're concerned and want to make sure that at least one of the authors gets your question, then don't worry; we both check "twilight_homies" at least once a day, so it'll be almost impossible not to find your e-mail. Thank ye.<> Sora is a girl. Otaku is a guy. Just so you know. Because we think some emailers are presuming that the "twilight homies" are both guys. We're not. One of each. ^_^ Everybody happy? ((Sora: Please stop asking which female character I think is hot. Or I "love" the most. Please.)) <>Otaku: LOL, I actually found that quite humorous.<> We're really sorry... we know this FAQ looks REALLY weird in Internet Explorer, and we're still trying to figure out why it does what it does. We've been testing it in Netscape, and the returns that we put in SHOULD carry over to IE, but for some reason they just aren't working out. We'll try to fix it... in the meantime, either (a) get Netscape to look at the FAQ or (b) don't blame us if it looks muddled and confusing ^_^; heh... -- MARK -- (spoilers) ... This be an FAQ. Thar be spoilers ahead. Yar. Savvy? - ~ - * UPDATE GUIDE * - ~ - 9/13/2003 Sorry about the lack of update. It seems Otaku can't log into Contributor Central, and neither of us could upload over the existing FAQ for a while. ^_^; Anyway, this update includes more people to the "Cool List" and we can tell you that the text version of the Flying Castle is ready to be sent out in case you need it ^_^ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 9/02/2003 A new section, thanks to a kind donation! Check out the "Art of Thievery", a list of items that can be stolen from various monsters and bosses. We're also considering revamping some of the sections...we'll let you know if we decide to. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 8/17/2003 A few things have been added: Rueloon Arena can now be found under "Arena Strategies", several secondary characters have been added to "Characters", the Shop Lists have now been completed, and we've got some new quotes in "Battle Voices" for ya, thanks to a very helpful contributor. ^_^ The FAQ is pretty much done; all that can really be added are putting in more quotes for Battle Voices, and putting in the Orcoth Arena fight strategies. We'll see what happens. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 8/14/2003 Our FAQ has indeed been updated on GameFAQs! Huzz! (Note: This is Otaku's word- one among many others. You may not use this word, unless you gain permission from him beforehand) So, to show how much we appreciate what Ceej did... we're gonna submit the updates soon, so Ceej can work some more! -_-; We're sorry, Ceej. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 8/11/2003 Well, while waiting for the FAQ to be put up, we've fixed and added a few things. Added Choko to the "Characters" and "Skills and Magic" section, as well as putting up a brand new section: "Arena Strategies"! Fighter and equipment suggestions, enemy information and levels... it's good. Really good. Especially since Otaku worked very hard on it. That adds to the goodness. Or something. For all those troubled by thou Arenas, go check it out. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 8/06/2003 It seems for some reason, our FAQ has not been updated and isn't located on the FTP server. o_O Since we've made a few additions to the guide anyway, we're submitting it again now... - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 8/01/2003 VERSION 1.0!!! Finished: The walkthrough! This is version 1.0! Added some updates to the Characters, Skills/Special Moves, Battle Voices, Arc References and Items sections. Also added a new "section" to Introduction: The "Buying" Guide, made for those who are uncertain on whether to purchase this great game. Item section will be finished by the next update. And as a side note: We were up so late working on this that we began stupid- dancing to a random Japanese song (YST- Midnight Party), and drinking chocolate milk with marshmellows. Lol. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/28/2003 Finished: Kharg's Story 3, Darc's Story 3, Kharg's Story 4, AND Darc's Story 4. Updating now! Muahaha! Go us ^_^ ... Please don't hate us for not updating sooner... ^_^; - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/25/2003 Continued to add Kharg's Story 3. Expected update soon. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/24/2003 Revamped the "Items, Etc" section to be easier to read. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/19/2003 Continuing with as much updating as possible in the span of a few days. We will get this thing finished. We swear, under pain of death. ... Well, it WILL be done... eventually. ^_^ Completed Ancient Tablet and Spirit Dictionary information. Added Kharg's Story 3 and more Arc References, as well as more Skills/Magic. We plan to revamp the Items section soon so that Items will be easier to find. Expect that within the next couple of updates. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/15/2003 Yessiree, we're updating, this time with one we'll upload to replace our previous version on GameFAQs. Updates include: Kharg's Story 2, Darc's Story 2, Ganz, Volk, and Camellia added to the "Characters" section, more Skill/Magic info, and several new sections: Battle Voices, AtL Collection References, the "Cool List", and Ancient Tablet/Spirit Dictionary locations and info. (Side note from Otaku: I've had my hands full for the last couple of days, due to the 2 websites I'm making as well as finding some time to play Arc the Lad...and take notes so I could write the notes up on the computer. As well as trying to keep my faction up and running (I'd put in a shameless plug here, but I don't think CJayC would be too happy about that. ^_^' heheh). This is a major reason for the late update, so...gomen nasai. -_-) Sora's busy too. Or something. Don't hate us because we work hard. It's all for you. Yeah, you. *points* And maybe that guy next to you. And your cat. Rock, Kuroneko. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/5/2003 AIEEEEE!! We're published FAQ authorses! Uh... yeah. Thank yoooouuuu, CJayC!! Updates today include the addition of Kharg's middle name to the Characters section, more additions to the Skills and Magic sections, and the beginning of Kharg's Story 2. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/3/2003 Darc's Story 1 finished, due to Otaku's writing prowess. Guide is now preliminarily done... ready to be submitted. Updates will follow. Wish us luck ^_^ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/2/2003: Well, we worked all through the night... still not much progress. Still writing Kharg's Story 1. It's 4 am. We think we'll sleep now. Hey, it's a damn good FAQ. You know it. Whoo. 'Night. Later on: It's now 3 pm. Still not quite ready for submission... we reached the maximum amount of text for a SimpleText document and I (Sora) have been deleting carriage returns like my life depends on it to work in Microsoft Word. Back to the real work now. I hope I don't get carpal tunnel. 3:38 pm: Kharg's Story 1 is finally done. 4:48 pm: The framework for the FAQ is finally complete. Sora wants to submit it now and then update from here on out. Otaku wants to keep working, then submit a more complete guide. It seems to be a conflict of interests. We'll keep you posted. Literally. - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - 7/1/2003: We began this FAQ ^_^ There isn't a lot of information right now... Started to write the beginning of the beginning. Stay tuned. We'll progress rapidly. Hopefully. On a random note: Happy July. - ~ - * TABLE OF CONTENTS * - ~ - Note: To get around easily in this FAQ, simply do a search for a key part of the section title and you should be brought right to it. I. Introduction A. Background Storyline: Previous ATL Summaries B. Background Storyline: War of the Spirits C. Spirit Stones D. The "Buying" Guide II. Characters A. Main Characters B. Secondary Characters III. Menus and Controls A. Stats B. World Map/Town Controls C. Battle Controls IV. Walkthrough A. Kharg's Story 1: The First Battle B. Darc's Story 1: Awakening C. Kharg's Story 2: Setting Out D. Darc's Story 2: Ambition E. Kharg's Story 3: Conflict F. Darc's Story 3: Love and Hate G. Kharg's Story 4: Rage H. Darc's Story 4: Reunion I. Kharg's Story 5: Truth J. Darc's Story 5: Evolution K. Kharg's Story 6: Rivalry L. Darc's Story 6: The Final Battle M. Kharg and Darc: The Final Battle V. Arena Strategies V1. The Art of Thievery VII. Skills and Magic A. Overview: Acquiring Skills and Magic B. Skills C. Magic VIII. Items Etc. A. Kharg's Party Shop Info B. Darc's Party Shop Info IX. Ancient Tablets and Spirit Dictionaries A. Ancient Tablets B. Spirit Dictionaries X. Battle Voices A. Kharg's Scenario B. Darc's Scenario XI. Arc the Lad Collection References XII. The "Cool List" XIII. Credits and Thanks - ~ - * I . INTRODUCTION * - ~ - (( Sora: Otaku thinks he's gonna snap because I "won't let him write any of this". I think I'll be turning this over to him. )) <> Otaku: Uh...heheh. *Ahem*... <> A. Background Storyline: Previous ATL Summaries Before we leap into the new game, let's look back at the three previous ATL games and their overall plot. Arc the Lad ~ Young lad Arc seeks his missing father Yoshoa, befriends allies along the way, then sets out to defeat an evil force (lead by the Dark One). It might not sound like much, but this simple strategy-RPG quickly became one of the most noteworthy in Japan. Allies include musician Poco, samurai Tosh, healer (and female love interest to Arc) Kukuru, and the eccentric summoner Chongara (his most powerful summon being Choko, who'll appear in the next three games...). Arc the Lad II ~ The sequel to ATL is actually a continuation of the first game; all of the old characters are still here, but the main focus has switched over to a young Hunter named Elc (a.k.a. Elk in Japanese) and his group of friends. Both the ATL and ATL II characters eventually become one large team, and together vanquish the Dark One. The defeat of the Dark One, however, costs Arc and Kukuru their lives...as well as causing "The Great Disaster", which also killed a whole lotta people. So, in short, there's a whole lot of dying. New characters in ATL II include ninja Shu, robot Diekbeck, and warrior Gruga. Choko also becomes a regular, playable character. Arc the Lad III ~ The last ATL game to appear on the PSX (for now at least), Arc the Lad III incorporates a lot of new features. Non-chibi character sprites, impressive CG cutscenes, new battle features, and a storyline based around Hunter Guild jobs are just the beginning of what's in here. An all-new cast is introduced, including Alec (the "hero"), Lutz (his goofy best friend ^_^), Theo (the kid with a dream), Cheryl (the rebellious "loner" chick), Marsia (the mage girl), and Velhart (the guy with the huge sword and long hair). Also playable for short periods are Elc, Shu and Tosh from the previous Arc games, and other characters from the first two games make cameos as well. B. Background Storyline: War of the Spirit Stones Chaos and suffering are close on the horizon...and powerful spirits are about to play their hand! For countless generations, Humans and Deimos have relied upon one natural resource- Spirit Stones. Both races mine the gems from sites around the world. To the Humans, the Stones are an energy source supplying warmth, light and mechanical power. To the Deimos, Spirit Stones are the vital force empowering their magical abilities. Aside from Spirit Stones, the Humans and Deimos have almost nothing in common. Centuries ago both races decided to ignore the other's existence. Now each culture inhabits a different part of the world. On those rare occasions when Humans and Deimos clash, control of Spirit Stones is the reason. To both Humans and Deimos, the most powerful treasures in the world are the five one-of-a-kind Great Spirit Stones, each representing one of the elemental powers of Water, Fire, Earth, Wind, and Light. If one being- Human or Deimos- were to possess all five stones, he would wield limitless power. At this moment, a Human army is sweeping across the globe in an attempt to capture all five of these treasures and enslave every other being on the planet. But the Spirits inhabiting the Great Spirit Stones will not let the future be decided so swiftly. Instead, they will place the fate of both races in the hands of two young warriors. One, named Kharg, lives a princely existence in the Human world. The other, Darc, is a lowly slave in the harsh Deimos civilization. He has suffered great hardship and carries a troubled heart. Each has sworn to defend his own world, and neither knows the other exists. Both these brave souls are unaware of the incredible powers they might soon possess. Join the two young warriors as they carry out a solemn oath to defend their civilizations. Prepare your weapons, focus your magical powers and surround yourself with powerful allies. It is time to battle the intruding darkness. C. Spirit Stones In ToS, characters do not have MP. Instead, they cast spells and use skills by harnessing the power from Spirit Stones. In a way, this is quite helpful; you can keep some characters constantly full of Spirit Stones (noted in this FAQ as "SS") by taking some away from characters that you don't use (or at least don't use their spells/skills) often. However, this can also be a bit of a pain; unlike MP, SS aren't recovered when you heal. You'll either have to buy some SS at shops or pick some up with a character during battle. For more information on magic spells, skills, or Spirit Stones in general, see the "Skills and Magic" section. D. The Buying Guide <>Otaku: w00t, a new section by me!<> This section is for all those out there who have not yet purchased Arc the Lad: Twilight of the Spirits. Maybe you've heard about it, or played it at a friend's house, or perhaps you happened to see it at some store one day. Whatever the reason is, this small guide was made to help determine whether you personally will like it, and whether you should buy or rent it. Part 1: Familiarity with Series How familiar are you with the Arc the Lad series? Have you ever played any of the first three games, or do you know someone who has? If so, then you should enjoy Arc: ToS. It's chock full of many references, and although some may be harder to find due to translation differences, most are easy enough. Does that mean that you have to play any or all of the first three games? Most certainly not. I'm merely saying that you will only get the MOST out of this game if you have. Not to mention that the first three games are great RPGs anyway, so IMO it's a win-win situation there. Part 2: Familiarity with Battle System Have you ever played a "strategy-RPG" before? In many of these games (such as the first three Arc games), each battlefield is split into a large grid, with the characters and enemies each residing in one square. Since you have a limited range, you must use tactical decisions (as the name "strategy-RPG" implies) in order to defeat your opponents. If you have played a strategy-RPG (and you enjoyed it), then you would also probably enjoy Arc: ToS. The battle system in Arc: ToS is different from that in the previous Arc games (rather than fighting on a grid, characters and enemies can move a certain radius around, which I found to work better in 3D fights), but the old Arc still exists (the "Attacking from behind is always best" rule and familiar spells, to name a few). However, despite all this, I think that even if you haven't played a strategy-RPG before, you'll still catch onto the battle system pretty fast. Part 3: Length Do you dislike games that aren't too long, or do you not really care? Although Arc: ToS is a fine game, it can be finished fairly fast if you don't bother with the Arenas (I personally don't care about the length of games, but I know a decent amount of people that do). 40-50 hours is a reasonable estimate, give or take depending on what you decide to do or not do. If you're one of those people that love those 70-80 hour, two or more disk RPGs (which I am, surprisingly), then you may want to consider renting Arc: ToS first. Those are the main points to keep in mind when considering to add Arc: ToS to your gaming library. All copies of this game should cost only $40 (or somewhere around that much), and that's pretty cheap for a next-gen console game nowadays. If you've gone over everything and are still unsure whether you should get it or not, just go ahead and rent it. Or, if you don't mind spoilers, you can read the first story or two of our walkthrough; you know, see if it sounds somewhat interesting or anything like that. And so concludes the buying guide. Have a question that the "guide" didn't cover? Or maybe have a different comment on the guide? Feel free to drop us a line (twilight_homies@yahoo.com) with anything of the like on the guide. I hope it's been at least somewhat helpful. - ~ - * II . CHARACTERS * - ~ - A. Main (Playable) Characters Below is a description of main characters, along with other tidbits of interest. As the walkthrough progresses, so will the information on characters and characters themselves will be added. Kharg Meleol Nidellia First Appears In: Kharg's Story (obviously) Age: 17 Weapon: Sword Uses: Skills, later Spirit Magic Description: Generally a happy guy, Kharg is one of the two main "heroes" in ToS. His family was once the ruling family of his country, Nidellia. He enjoys becoming a skilled warrior and strongly believes in protecting his country and his people with his strength. His best friend is Paulette, whom he has known since they were both very young. He is called "Lord Kharg" by many of the people in Yewbell but doesn't think it's necessary. He has a strange birthmark on his right arm and pointy-ish ears. ((Sora: ...is pointy-ish a word?)) His mother is Lady Nafia, and they live together in the town of Yewbell, in Nidellia. His father is dead, and his mother will not tell him anything about his dear ol' daddy-o.... Paulette First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: 17-18 Weapon: ((Sora: It's a paper airplane on a wire! It is, I tell you!!)) Unknown for the time being. Description: She is Kharg's best friend and has a bit of a crush on him. She is one of the only people to call him simply "Kharg". She is Lloyd's daughter and apparently the only female member of the Nidellia Defense Corps. Maru First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: Somewhere from 13-14, maybe older, maybe younger... meh. <>Otaku: Give or take.<> Weapon: Bow and Arrow Description: Maru is first known as the "wild monkey monster" with the green face that has been stealing food from the people of Yewbell. When Kharg ventures into the Chaos Forest, he encounters the "monkey monster" and discovers the true identity: that it's only Maru with a green mask. Maru claims to be the prince of his own country, yet doesn't remember what country or where it is, since he was taken away from it when he was young. He does however have a golden crown around his neck, which he uses as proof of his royalty. He eventually stops treating Kharg like a "peasant", but tends to treat everybody else like they are. Since both of his parents are dead, he has been living alone in Chaos Forest, but asks Kharg if he could go with him on his adventures because he wants companionship. Ganz First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: Somewhere in his mid 30s. Weapon: A huge, frelling AXE. (Ok, so it's not HUGE, but... eh.) Description: Ganz was a war orphan who became a mercenary to get money. However, one day he was gonna die, was saved by a young, "rookie" soldier who was fighting to protect the country he loved, and had a conversion thing. He then started looking for something to protect, and ended up in Isulo Forest, where he stays, known only as a "large, scary man" by the people in surrounding towns. He joins Kharg to look for that rookie soldier at first, later to get revenge. Colonel Tatjana of the Dilzweld Army Special Forces Division ((Sora: ... o_O)) First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: Somewhere in her late 20s, maybe early 30s. With a lot of makeup. Weapon: Special, scientific-y <>Otaku: That's not a word.<> ((Sora: ... Shut up!)) gun. Can shoot lotsa stuff. Description: Tatjana first appears at Scrappe Plateau to take Lilia to Emperor Darkham. She seems to think she's hot stuff and VERY loyal to Darkham, but that might all change... since Darkham probably sees her as a pawn to get what he wants. Probably. And, well now! It looks like she's now a playable character. Samson, the Double-barreled Gun-slinging Leader of the Moon Stone Gang of Thieves <>Otaku: 0_0 Dude! That's the longest title yet!<> First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: Late 30s to early 40s, though he likes to play it young and get the ladies. Weapon: Uh... double-barreled guns. Duh. Description: Samson seems to show up just when you need him to. He's saved Kharg's... uh, booty more than once. This leader and his gang ONLY steal from Dilzweld for some... strange, unapPARENT reason. ((Sora: COUGH COUGH COUGH WHEEZE... sorry.)) Later on, Kharg may figure out Samson's secret... and Samson may move out of the NPC section too. Well, what do you know. He did. Diekbeck, Leader of the Ultra-Mech Squad First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: REALLY old. Weapon: A gun on his arm. Description: Diekbeck is a secret character that can be won in the Cathena Arena. He first appeared in Arc the Lad 2, and some of his spells are still intact in ToS (some of the names have been altered, though). His body has been destroyed two times now (the first at the end of Arc 2, and the second near the end of Arc 3...not including deaths in battle in Arc 2), yet always looks the same...interesting. Darc First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: 17 Weapon: At first his left arm, later a sword. Description: Darc began life with his father, Windalf. Upon Windalf's untimely death, he entrusted his son with a shiny, pretty green stone (a.k.a. the Wind Stone). He was later rescued by a large, ugly... uh, woman named Geedo (who slightly resembles a hybrid of a frog... and Jabba the Hut) and taken in as a slave. She fed him (sort of) and took care of him (with a whip) so he grew up nice and strong. And angry. But anyway. Since Darc's mother was a human and his father was a Deimos, Darc shows physical characteristics of both. He looks mainly like a human with pointy ears, scales down one side of his body, and wings. He has a strange birthmark on his right arm. He lives with (slaves for) Geedo in her... home thing near the Deimos town of Orcoth. He is known to the Orcons there as a Deimos- "wannabe". Delma First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: 16-17 (you never can tell with Deimos...) Weapon: First her legs/feet (she kicks), later a long metal claw. Description: Delma is a Orcon girl who takes a special interest in Darc, the "wannabe". Her big brother Densimo is currently the leader of the Orcon and ruler of Orcoth. According to Gorma, the elder in Orcoth, Delma is really a shy girl... ((Sora: Uh-huh. Right.)) She joins Darc and begins to feel emotions and becomes quite attached to the "wannabe". That is, until the unfortunate incident, after which she vows to kill him. This alone is the "reason" she stays with Darc... ((Sora: Uh-huh. Sure. Right again.)) Volk First Appears In: Kharg's Story, oddly enough... Age: Uh... 20. Not in dog-years. Hahahahaha... uh... wolf. Weapon: An axe-like thing. Apparently NOT human-made. Since he's against that and all. Description: Volk's first appearance is in the end of Kharg's first story, where he most notably... kills Lloyd. But hey, Lloyd slaughtered his wife and kid, so all's fair in love and death. And killing. And rage. And revenge. Yeah. Volk then ventures around basically slaughtering things, until he gets to Darc's arena in Orcoth, where he kills a buncha Orcon, fights Darc, loses, and swears allegiance to Darc as his "alpha". One might even go so far as to say Volk is Darc's bitch. Literally. (As in the DOG way, people.) So Volk is Darc's lackey. Camellia Rofeana Semalba First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Um... she looks heeeeeeeeecka old. But she's probably not that old... Weapon: A flower and poison dart-things. We think. Description: Camellia is the Pianta Sage, which means... she knows a lot. She first appears technically as an enemy to Darc's posse, fighting them inside a Dilzweld machine called a "Argewalt". When they defeat it, Camellia is freed. She was kidnapped (sage-napped?) by Dilzweld because her tribe knew the location of the "Miracle Stone", actually the Water Stone. None from her tribe would tell the Dilzweld where it was, so they were tortured and experimented on using the power of the Earth Stone that Dilzweld had. This is apparently why she has her shriveled, nasty appearance. She joins Darc in order to get the Water Stone and transform back into her regular self. But, like everyone else, she just wants to follow Darc. Darc coo. We love Darc. Bebedora First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Looks like a young girl of maybe 9 or 10... actual age is OLLLLLLD. Weapon: Stuffed Rabbit. Yeah, you heard us. Description: Bebedora was created for the sole purpose of destroying the world. Fun, huh? She's been trapped inside the Coleopt Shrine as a sort of guard dog for Queen Selkis. She decides that, since Darc's emotions are so different from any Deimos or Human, she wants to follow Darc and his posse on their adventures to "see more" of Darc's emotions. She then takes Darc as her "master" and swears to follow him. She says that she is a "puppet", human- like, controls and is controlled. Her Mind Control skills are formidable, and, in all honesty, nobody doesn't like her. (Ah, double negatives...) Choko First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Looks about 9 or 10, although she's actually REALLY old Weapon: Her shoes Description: Choko is...well, a demon child. Or, as she puts it, "100% pure Deimos". Appearing as a Chongara Summon Pot summon in the first AtL game, Choko has made appearances in each Arc game to date; whether she be playable or allowing you to play a few mini-games. However, she really got a chance to shine in Arc the Lad 2, where a fun side-quest revolved around her and her past. Ending with her merging with her twin sister Akura and learning new abilities, Choko was then easily the best all-around character in the game. Too bad there's nothing like it in Arc: ToS... B. Secondary (Non-Playable) Characters Lilia First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: 16-17 Weapon: None... her ortena? Her English singing voice? ^_- heh. <>Otaku: Ouch.<> Description: Lilia has had a hard life. She lived in peace with her mother and father until Dilzweld decided to hunt out the Great Spirit Stones. Her hometown was in possession of the Light Stone at that time, and ended up getting... mauled by Darkham's lackeys. The Light Stone was handed over to Lilia's family and they ran. One day, her father gave the Light Stone to her mother and up and left, nobody knows why. Three years before the events of ToS, Lilia's mother died, leaving Lilia in sole possession of the Light Stone. Since then, Lilia has been running from Darkham. Kharg and gang find her after her airship crashes near Yewbell, while Lilia is on her way to Cathena to report Darkham's activity to the World Alliance. She's wanted by Darkham for a special reason... one we've yet to uncover. (Well, WE have, but YOU might not have. So we won't spoil it.) (Lady) Nafia Yuriel Nidellia First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: Unknown Weapon: None, her optimism. ^_^ ((Sora: heh.)) <>Otaku: lol<> Description: Kharg's mother, the former Queen of Nidellia. ((Sora: She's got a weird headdress thing...)) Whenever she hears about someone fighting, she lectures about not fighting with hatred, rather to protect someone or something. According to an old woman and old man in Yewbell, Nafia was quite a warrior in her day. She came back from a "long journey", <>Otaku:*coughhocough*<> many years ago ((Sora:*coughhocough*)) only to find that, in her absence, the country had been invaded, the castle burnt to the ground, and her hubby killed. She immediately took charge and drove out the invaders, then declared Nidellia no longer a monarchy, creating a peaceful, happy, EQUAL place. ((Sora: Peace and love, kiddies.)) However... she harbors a deep, dark secret and refuses to tell Kharg anything about his father......... ((Sora: Come on, what did the townspeople THINK when she came BACK TO HER HUSBAND with a CHILD??)) Windalf First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Probably a little older than Nafia...er, WAS a little older. Weapon: Probably a sword, like most other Drakyr. Or his arm. Whatever. Description: Darc's father, the former leader of the Drakyr. He fell in love with Nafia, and ran away with her and the Wind Stone. Reaching the human-Deimos paradise on Cragh Island, the two of them learned that humans and Deimos really could live together, if the two sides would just try. Too bad that shortly after that, Nafia fell to her presumed death and Windalf died due to an injury inflicted upon him by pursuing Drakyr. Windalf appears to Darc at the beginning of his first story, telling him to save the Deimos and to stop a looming crisis. Windalf is the son of Williwo. Darkham Ekid na Bard First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: maybe 40? Do vampires have the same age system as humans? Weapon: Darkham Sword of Darkness and Despair <>Otaku: I made that up. It's actually just a sword. Meh.<> Description: Darkham is the leader of Dilzweld, who seeks the 5 GSS so he can... well... we don't want to spoil the real reason for you. Anyway, he wants the 5 GSS as well as Lilia, for she has something that Darkham needs. Darkham is never seen without his Royal Guards (the Emperor Palpatine rejects, as mentioned several times in the walkthrough). We believe this man to be a vampire. Or something very, very close to it. LOOK at him, people! Droguza First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Uh...no clue. Weapon: His large, Deimos right arm. Description: Droguza looks like a whole mess of random Deimos. Once again, if we told you why that is, we'd spoil it for you. Droguza is also seeking out the 5 GSS so he can become the Ultimate Deimos. He first meets Darc at the Rueloon Arena, where he is able to steal the Water Stone. For the remainder of the game, you will battle with Droguza several more times... including one that may be his last. May. As in will. Zev First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: 40-50? Weapon: His cane? Liquor? Or maybe he just goes into a mad frenzy when he's hammered. Description: Zev, the world famous explorer, is one of the first characters that you will meet in the game. In fact, prior to your meeting with him is your very first battle! Wow. Kharg will encounter this mysterious explorer several times throughout the game. But how can he get around so fast... and what are his true intentions? Maybe you'll find out later in the game... maybe, as in will. Captain Lloyd of the Nidellia Defense Corps. <>Otaku: Man, that's one hell of a title.<> First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: Old Weapon: Sword Description: Paulette's father. He has been a father-figure to Kharg ever since Kharg was young, and taught Kharg to fight. He's currently growing old and slow <>Otaku: LOL!<> however, and will soon retire as Captain of the Defense Corps. He hopes to turn the title over to Kharg, who has proven that he is worthy of it. His buddy is Duncan, who mans the Defense Corps. office in the corner of the pub. Thought we'd mention Duncan here, instead of in his own entry. Poor fool. Rapier First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Mid-20s? Weapon: Uh...a sword. A certain type of sword, we'll bet. Description: Rapier is a mercenary unlike all other mercenaries; rather than fighting for wealth or fame, he fights to protect what is important to him. Rapier saved Ganz (back while Ganz was in the service), and his words of wisdom inspired Ganz to search for something he could protect (hence his living in Isulo Forest). Even though he greatly affects Ganz for the duration of the game, Rapier never actually appears in Kharg's Story; rather, he and some other mercenaries stop by Windalf's grave. It's near his father's grave that Darc is able to defeat Rapier and the other mercenaries. In fact, the armor and sword that Darc uses for the rest of the game are indeed Rapier's...what a crazy twist. Foh First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: Around Maru's age, possibly a little older. Weapon: Her fortune-telling abilities? o_O Description: Foh is a young girl who specializes in fortune-telling and seeing into the future. She is the current "ruler" of Milmarna, due to a mishap with the prince many years ago. It's a long story, with predicting the future, and an assassination plot, and Foh's father being mauled by Deimos, and such. Anyway, when Kharg and group arrive at Milmarna, Maru poses as the prince so they can get the Lamda sutra translated. What a mean prank to pull, Maru. Or IS it...? Yrena and Nazaal, wife and son (respectively) of Volk First Appears In: Kharg's Story, briefly before dying >_< Age: Yrena is probably a little younger than or the same as Volk, and Nazaal looks about 7 or 8. Weapon: Maybe Nazaal borrowed Volk's axe from time to time...and Yrena probably had her own, even though she didn't use it. Description: Yrena and Nazaal is the family Volk has to leave behind, all thanks to Lloyd. Good job, Lloyd. But then again, if it wasn't for Lloyd and his unjustified killing, Volk wouldn't have gone on that mad "kill-all-humans-and- possibly-other-things-that-bother-me" trip and joined up with Darc. And that would suck, since Volk is a rather nice addition to Darc's party. Anyway, the death of Volk's family develops into a hate of Paulette...and although she technically also has a just reason for hating Volk, since Volk killed Lloyd, Lloyd DID start it all. Or so we presume. Too bad there isn't a scene that shows what REALLY happened...meh. Geedo First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: HOLY... uh, old. And FAT. And ugly. <>Otaku: You know, those are more physical characteris-<> ((Sora: Sha! She is, you know.)) <>Otaku: ... Yeah.<> Weapon: Whip! ((Sora: Whippy whippy time.)) <>Otaku: Whoo-pah!<> Description: Geedo... is fat and ugly. That out of the way, she took Darc in when he was very young and starving on the streets of Orcoth. Like we said before, she fed him poor and whipped him rich... er, good, so he grew up. That, in itself, was a miracle. Anyway. She likes a couple of things: (1) ordering Darc around, (2) whipping Darc when he doesn't do what she wants, (3) whipping Darc for no apparent reason, (4) Phoenix Blood, for drinkin'. Mmm, good for the heart. Or something. She also enjoys doing things for money. Greedy bastard. Er... whatever she is. Gorma First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: uh... Elder-ly Weapon: His staff, should he choose to use it. Description: Gorma is the "village elder" of Orcoth and former leader/ruler of the town. He chose Densimo to rule after him, thinking that Densimo would be a good leader... <>Otaku: Boy was he wrong...<> Gorma very much likes Firbles, tiny-little-cute-white-lizard-like-creatures. Phew. He wishes to try and raise one into a Pyron (flaming flying creatures) so that he can fly on it. Densimo First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Older than Delma, not as old as Gorma Weapon: His sheer bulk, baby. Description: Densimo is Delma's older brother, the current ruler of Orcoth. However, he's a bad leader; all he does is sit, sleep and eat Firbles. Oh yeah, he also bosses people around and threatens to kill them. Fun. Densimo only wants Firbles and power, and the power that comes with eating Firbles, and then s'more power. And Firbles. He joins Darc to fight humans and the Drakyr (other Deimos), but later, due to this... desperate want of Firbles, an incident occurs between Densimo and Darc that severs their alliance with each other. Densimo's biggest lackeys are Zoram and Zugalo. Captain Spencer of the Epistia Resistance Team ((Sora: I made that up. Whoop.)) First Appears In: Kharg's Story Age: An older gentleman... maybe in his 50s. Weapon: Probably a gun, sword, something else... hand grenades... crossbow... something else... yeah, he's armed. Description: Spencer is leading the Resistance in Epistia. Shock, huh. His men "aid" Kharg and company only in that they cause trouble... he does allow you to get a weapon upgraded to the Big Owl though, so he's not completely useless. Williwo First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Old. Very old. Weapon: His cane...or maybe his bulk, kinda like Densimo. Description: HEY HEY HEY! Williwo's here to stay! ... Excuse us. Anyway, Williwo is the Drakyrnian elder. Darc will meet up with Williwo when the posse makes a stop in Drakyrnia. Williwo is the father of that traitor Windalf; although he seems quite displeased with his son's decisions, he rather prefers to throw the blame of everything on that stupid human Nafia. Williwo will also explain to Darc how every member of the family of Will has the Crest of Will on their body somewhere, about Droguza and what he (Williwo) knows about him, and how his (Darc's) mother and brother were killed years ago. But we know better, don't we? Yes, yes we do. Sagan First Appears In: Darc's Story Age: Very old, but not as old as Williwo. Weapon: He seems like one of those kickass old guys who can pwn with katanas or bokens and stuff...but with that aside, he doesn't let on if he uses a weapon, and if so what it is. Description: Sagan is the long-time servant of Windalf, and despite Windalf's "traitor"-ness, Sagan is still loyal to his master. Darc will meet Sagan on the way up to see Williwo in Drakyrnia, who in turn will then introduce you to the elder himself. Unlike Williwo, Sagan doesn't seem to have a big grudge against Nafia (or, if he does, at least he hides it well). - ~ - * III . MENUS AND CONTROLS * - ~ - A. Stats Stats are pretty simple, really... If you've ever played any RPG, most will ring a bell. Or at least sound similar. Here's the lowdown. - LV: Level. Character's level. Goes up as you gain experience through battles. - * (SS image): Spirit Stone Total, the amount of SS the character currently has out of the total number that they could have. - (Picture of a bag): Item Total: The number of items that your character is holding out of the total number that they can hold. - HP: Hit points. The amount of health your character has out of the total amount that they have. If HP reaches 0... you win a prize! Yup, death. Happy hunting. - EXP: Experience your character has. - NEXT LEVEL: The amount of EXP your character needs to increase to the next level. - CLASS: A character's magic or skill level, represented by little gold stars. Gain SP to move up a Class. - NEXT CLASS: The amount of SP needed to increase to the next Class. - ATT: A character's attack power. The higher this number, the more damage the character dishes out. - SPD: Speed. This number determines who attacks when and how often in a battle. Higher numbers mean quicker attacks, more often. - CNT: Counterattack. The higher this number, the greater the chances of the character countering a Standard Attack. - MOV: Movement. The higher the number, the greater the area that can be moved around in during battle. A.k.a. your "reach" is bigger. - DEF: Defense. The higher the number, the less damage will be received from attacks. - HIT: Hit percentage. Probability that a character's Standard Attack will hit and not miss. - GRD: Guard. Probability that a character will block a Standard Attack. - TNS: Tension meter. As you take hits in battle, your character's tension meter will rise. Once it is full, a fire aura will appear around the character. In this state, all Standard Attacks by that character will be more powerful. In addition, if an ally is nearby when that character performs a Standard Attack, they will perform a dual attack for a buncha damage. ((Sora: TNS is a new addition to ATL games, fyi.)) - MNT: Mental. The higher the number, the greater the effects of magic and skills. - SP: Spell casting. The ability to cast spells is earned with victories in combat. SP can later be used to "pay" for new skills and magic. - AVO: Avoidance. A higher number means that the character can dodge attacks more easily. - CRI: Critical Hit percentage. The higher the number, the higher the probability that the character will perform a critical hit during a Standard Attack. Elements: You can use elemental resistance items to make a character take less damage from certain elemental attacks. The elements are Fire, Water, Wind, Earth, Light and Dark. B. World Map/ Town Controls The controls for the World Map and towns are similar to that in previous ATL games. On the World Map, you can select a location using a flaming sword as a cursor. When a new area is brought up in conversation, it will appear in green text, signifying that it is now accessible on the World Map. By entering an area infested with monsters, you will automatically engage in a battle (or occasionally enter an important scene). By entering a town, you switch to the town controls: - Left Analog Stick/D-pad: Run. - Left Analog Stick halfway/Left Analog Stick+O/D-pad+O: Walk. - X: Talk/Investigate. - T (Triangle): Open main menu. (also usable on the World Map) - O (when in main menu): Back/Close menu. When dealing with merchants and other craftsmen (er...people), you can select sub-menus using the Left Analog Stick/D-pad and X. When purchasing weapon parts or accessories, the small images of characters in your party represent who can equip them. And whenever you find merchants, make sure to stock up on healing items and Spirit Stones! C. Battle Controls As soon as you enter a battle, you will be able to select party members that you wish to participate in the fight (as well as check party items and stats, or use items or skills). Once you have decided, select "Start" and then "OK" to begin. You will then view the victory conditions (these conditions must be met to successfully "win" the fight). Most of the time, the conditions will just be for you to defeat the enemies. Other times, however, you'll have to protect a character from harm or deal with another distraction while fighting. ((Sora: Yes indeedy.)) Anyway, after the victory conditions, you then switch to the battle controls: - Left Analog Stick/D-pad: Move. (can only move within the blue area around your character) - X: Standard Attack/Pick up item(s)/(when choosing a skill, item, or magic spell) Confirm selection. - R1 (hold): Displays the character's Weapon Range (aim with Left Analog Stick/D-pad). - S (Square): Displays cursor that can move freely around the screen (can check ally/enemy stats). - T (Triangle): Open battle menu (use Left Analog Stick/D-pad to make a selection). In the battle menu... - Attack: If close enough and aimed at enemy, your character will perform a Standard Attack. - Pick up: If standing directly over item(s) ("Item" will appear over character's head), your character can pick up the item(s). (note: Once a character has picked up an item, he/she will be unable to move. He/she can still attack and use skills, items, and magic, however) - Skill (for Humans and Darc): Shows the skills the character knows (and the SS cost to use them). - Magic (for Deimos and Kharg): Shows the magic the character knows (and the SS cost to use them). - Items: Shows the items the character is currently holding. - End: Ends the character's turn. (by moving right or left while on the battle menu, you can reach these options:) - Equip: Allows the character to change his/her equipment. - Status: Shows the character's stats. - Conditions: Displays the victory conditions (also notes what will result in a loss). - Retreat: Allows your party to usually escape from most battles. Also, not that it really matters, but unlike in previous ATL games, characters don't leap over one another; instead, they "shove" and move around them. ^_^ (heh) - ~ - * IV . WALKTHROUGH * - ~ - The game starts with a cutscene (where the English dub comes into play, and you can't do a darn thing about it) of a peaceful-looking girl sitting in a peaceful-looking place, playing some peaceful-sounding music on a strange...yet peaceful-looking instrument. She hears a noise and looks up suddenly to see a large airship and smaller craft approaching her in the sky. With "the Spirits guiding her", she takes off. A. Kharg's Story 1: The First Battle Okay, so technically there's another cutscene before this but...meh. Anyway, you'll see this cutscene of a boy (Kharg) preparing for a swordfight with an older man in armor (Lloyd). A girl (Paulette) cheers for Kharg from the sidelines. After enjoying Kharg's ownage <>Otaku: Is that a word? Eh.<>, Lloyd admits that Kharg has become very skilled. A stout man (Banjo) calls to Lloyd and asks to speak with him. Kharg and Paulette wonder what they are speaking about, and you gain control of Kharg! However, you can't do much right now so...just run over and talk to Banjo. Banjo explains that he was at Scrappe Plateau earlier and saw a "suspicious-looking old man" there. He wants it to be checked out. Kharg offers to go, and Lloyd agrees, telling Paulette to accompany him. Paulette suggests that you should stop in and tell "Lady Nafia" ((Sora:*coughthehocough*)) where you are going. Kharg thinks it unnecessary, but YOU (lucky you) get to go to Kharg's house anyway. It's right there, where you were fighting, just GO in the door. Yup. Nafia seems not to be there... They hear a voice, however, that seems to be coming from Nafia's room. Kharg says he'll check in it out, and Paulette seems to think it would be "wrong" or something if she saw Nafia's room, so she stays in the doorway. Whatever. You can explore Kharg's home... uh, there ain't much there. His room is off to the right and consists of... a very large bed. Wow, simple decor. Go Kharg. There's another bed out in the middle of the freaking... living...room...thing... (which never seems to be used, by the way...), and Lady Nafia's room is across from the front door. Go ahead in, luckster. Kharg goes in and... nobody's there! Waahoo! Kharg notices a shiny thing, though, and goes to check it out. After all, it might be dangerous. He notes that it's a stone that's glowing. Hmm. Then the same voice that Kharg and Paulette heard earlier speaks again, this time to Kharg. A small, floating man appears, introducing himself as the Wind Spirit. It tells Kharg (basically) to save the world from impending darkness and "awaken" as a hero/savior. Whoop. Then the Spirit disappears and Kharg is left bewildered at what this all could mean. Time to go hunting for old guys on Scrappe Plateau. You can take this chance to wander around town if you wish. Right next to your house is the gate to the Castle Ruins, which is currently locked, you'll soon find out why. Down the stairs to the right of your house is the Item Shop, and further down those stairs (or through the Item Shop) is the Weapon/Accessory Shop. To the left of the Weapon Shop door is the Pub, down another small flight of stairs is the Refinery, where Spirit Stones are turned into energy for the town. If you go toward the Refinery, you'll meet a man outside named Butch, who is a worker and is waiting for Banjo to get there. He asks you to get Banjo (who is in the Item Shop). If you talk to Banjo then, he'll give you the Knuckle Guard, a nice accessory for Kharg. If you venture into the Pub, you'll find a healer right inside the door (helpful), the "office" of the Defense Corps in the corner (very helpful), and a Save Point upstairs (most helpful). The man behind the

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